General-Purpose Automatic Digital Computer 'Ural-11'
The general-purpose electronic digital computer "Ural-11" is designed for solving factory planning, accounting, statistical and other problems involving reception, storage, processing and presentation of numeric and alphabetic information, and also for operation in automatic data processing systems.
The "Ural-11" is available in several versions: "Ural-11А", "Ural-11Б", "Ural-11В", "Ural-11Г", "Ural-11Д", "Ural-11Е". Each version consists of a different set of functional units and is intended for a concrete range of applications.
The "Ural-11" computers can be employed at individual factories and other enterprises for the following purposes:
- production planning, including design and technological calculations, compilation of various forms, lists and specifications, route and operation flow charts, drawing up of standards and norms for materials used;
- economical planning, including labor and payroll calculation;
- book-keeping and statistical applications, plant analysis and accounting;
- calculation of piece and volume output programs for production departments, evaluation of the utilization of equipment, scheduling of input and output of factory products;
- plant management and control (dispatcher's service);
- evaluation of time and piece rates;
- continuous recording of the amounts of raw materials and articles in stock and production.
The computers "Ural-11" can be efficiently used in the following spheres:
- recording of demands on commodities, their availability and flow in the trade system;
- planning and financial calculations in finance institutions;
- statistical computation;
- solution of transportation problems;
- handling of information problems;
- transcription of information from different media.
With a required set of functional units, the computers "Ural-11" can be employed for production monitoring by periodic measurement and recording of process variables, and also for direct process control by processing information supplied by the transducers in accordance with a preset algorithm, and acting upon on-off, proportional and other controllers.
The computers "Ural-11" are applicable in research institutes, design bureaus, colleges and universities for solving engineering problems and analysis of experiment results, with data read into the computer either directly or with the aid of magnetic or punched tape.
The computers "Ural-11" belong to a set of semi-conductorized electronic digital computers "Ural" of identical design and construction, with identical information input, storage and output devices, employing the same input and output alphabet and the same codes for handling information on punched cards, punched tape and in the computer.
The computer "Ural-11" can operate in a data processing system which incorporates electronic digital computers "Ural-16", "Ural-14" and "Ural-11" connected directly or through transmission channels. Information stored on punched cards, magnetic tape and punched tape in the course of operation of the "Ural-11" can be directly handled by the computers "Ural-14" and "Ural-16".
The features of the computers "Ural-11" are as follows:
- data input from punched cards, punched tape, magnetic tape, transmission channels and continuous signal transducers;
- data output on punched cards, punched tape, magnetic tape, transmission channels, controllers, printers and automatic recorders;
- monitoring of data input (output from) onto punched cards and punched tape, and also monitoring of input, output and storage of information on magnetic tape;
- round-the-clock operation with off-periods;
- modular construction on the basis of standardized set of elements, units and devices of the computer "Ural-10";
- different sets of functional units, depending on the range and field of application.
The standard equipment of the computer "Ural-11" incorporates the following devices (in various combinations and quantities):
- card punch У-105,
- punched card verifier У-145,
- tape punch У-107,
- punched card reader У-215,
- punched tape reader У-225,
- punched tape reader and printer У-230,
- 128-channel analogue-to-digital converter У-250 (up to 8 pcs.),
- punched card output unit У-525,
- punched tape output unit У-535,
- alphanumeric printer У-545,
- digital-to-analogue converter У-570,
- arithmetic and control unit У-328,
- 4096-word ferrite store У-450,
- 8192-word ferrite store У-451,
- 8192-word unidirectional store У-479,
- magnetic drum store (control cabinet) У-415,
- magnetic drum МБ-9 (up to 8 pcs.),
- magnetic tape store (control cabinet) У-435,
- magnetic tape store (tape handler) У-445 (up to 8 pcs.),
- multiplier У-340,
- decimal adder У-342.
The computer "Ural-11" is available in several versions with different sets of functional units. The capacity of each version can be increased to suit individual requirements, by the addition of units delivered to special order. In any version, provisions are made for connection of all the units.
Basic Specifications Of Computer "Ural-11"
|Representation of numbers||fixed point; input, storage, processing and output of alphanumeric information|
|Number of binary digits||24 and 12|
|Number base||binary and decimal|
|Number of instructions||124|
|Number of index registers||7|
|Number of interrupt channels||30|
|Computation speed, operations/sec:|
|addition, subtraction and logical operations||up to 50000|
350 (24X24 without multiplier У-340)
14000 (24X24 with multiplier У-340)
25000 (24X12 with multiplier У-340)
|floating-point addition and subtraction (mantissa-24, order-12 digits)||1000|
|decimal addition and subtraction||
12000 (5-digit words with decimal adder У-342)
5000 (11-digit words with decimal adder У-342)
|Storage capacity, 24-digit words:|
|magnetic drum store||98000-399000|
|magnetic tape store||1000000-8000000|
|Speed of information exchange with transmission channels and other conjugate devices, 24-digit words/sec||100000|
|Speed of input/output of information from/onto magnetic tape:|
|Speed of information input, decimal digits/sec:|
|from punched cards||1800|
|from punched tape||1000|
|Speed of information output, decimal digits/sec:|
|onto punched cards||150|
|onto punched tape||80|
|Speed of information input from punched cards, cards/min||700|
|Speed of information output onto punched cards, cards/min||100|
|Speed of information output to printing devices, 128-digit lines/min||400|
|Speed of information output to printing devices, characters/sec||800|
|Power consumption (depending on version), kVA||>=4|
|ambient temperature, °C||+5 to +40|
|Floor space (depending on version), m2||>=(30 to 40)|
The basic specifications of the computers "Ural-14" and "Ural-16" are as follows:
|"Ural-14" Representation of numbers||fixed point||fixed and floating point|
|Number of binary digits||24||48|
|Computation speed, microsec:|
|addition and logical operations||22 (24 digits)||10 (48 digits)|
|multiplication||300 (24 digits)||30 (48 digits)|
|floating-point addition||1000 (23; 7)||10 (39; 7)|
|floating-point multiplication||1000 (23; 7)||30 (39; 7)|
|Storage capacity, 24-digit words:|
|ferrite store||<= 65536||<=131072|
|magnetic drum store||<=400000||<=400000|
|magnetic tape store||<=16000000||<=32000000|
|ambient temperature, °C||+5 to +40|
|Construction||circuit assemblies in standardised packaged units and elements of "Ural-10"|
|Standard equipment||variable set of functional units; identical data input, output and storage facilities|
|Peculiar features||simultaneous handling of many problems; simultaneous operation of up to 24 input and output units, stores and arithmetic unit. Programs are independent of their position in stores. Address protection circuits, monitoring of data storage, transmission and processing. Variable-length words are handles. Multi-channel program interrupt and stop facility (up to 64 interrupt channels). Remote control operator's panels can be connected|
|Data input||from punched cards, punched tape, magnetic tape, transmission channels and continuous signal transducers|
|Data output||onto punched cards, punched tape, magnetic tape, transmission channels, controllers, printers and automatic recorders|