Electronic Digital Computer Ural-4 (Урал-4)
Ivan Vasilyevich Urnev
- Chief designer – B.I. Rameev (Rameev Bashir Iskanderovich).
Leading assistant designers: A.N. Nevsky, V.I. Mukhin, A.G. Kalmykov, V.I. Smirnov, G.S. Gorshkov, L.N. Bogoslovsky, M.N. Knyasev, O.F. Lobov, etc.
- Basic organisation in charge of the computer project and design: Penza Scientific-Research Institute of Electronic Computing Machines.
- Producing plant: Penza Plant of Computing Analytic Machines (under MIAM).
- Completion of the design (year): 1961.
- Beginning of the serial production (year): 1962.
- Finishing the serial production (year): 1964.
- Application field: computations for expanded field of mathematic problems and industrial planning tasks at computation centres of scientific research institutes and industrial enterprises.
- Number of produced computers: 30 pieces.
(computer structure, architecture and peripheral devices)
Final variant of computer URAL-4 design was developed by numerous modifications of the basic URAL-2 model, which were conducted by two principal directions:
- Expanded set and increased number of additional input-output devices. Punched tape devices were replaced with punched card ones, numerical printer replaced with alphanumeric one with lines of 128 places.
- Increased capacity of external memory storages and their reliability. New memory devices with magnetic tape essentially enlarged volume of stored data. Record doubling and recording/keeping of control sums on the tape noticeably increased information storing reliability. Increased density of recording on magnetic drum doubled its capacity. Its speed also increased.
Number of URAL-4 instructions rose up to 51 through integrating of URAL-2 instructions. 8 magnetic drums and up to 12 magnetic tape cabinets could be simultaneously connected to the computer.
Electron-valve circuits with diode gates were the same as in URAL-1 and URAL-2.
Configuration of URAL-4 in general repeated URAL-2. Electron-valve cells were placed in the upper parts of the computer cabinets in its main part; power supply blocks were placed in the lower parts of the same cabinets. However, the punched-card devices, magnetic tape devices and alphanumeric printer had new design.
Traditional technologies of mechanical and plastic parts processing, same as in URAL-1, -2, were implemented. Technologies of the ferrite memory and peripheral devices manufacturing were new.
Test programs, control tasks.
Basic operational and technical data
URAL-4 was fully compatible with URAL-2 on software level, URAL-4 required 250 sq m, power consumption – 60 kWA.
Specific features of the computer
Increased number of additional peripheral devices essentially expanded URAL-4 possibilities at economic and planning information processing. Intermediate modification (between URAL-2 and URAL-4), which differed from them mainly with its specific set of peripheral devices, was put into commercial production as computer URAL-3.
Translated by A. Nitussov