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Full biography of Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov

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There were scientists in the history of the Soviet computers development, which had serious, and even philosophical, approach to the problems they should solve. Therefore, we have our own teachers. The word “methodology” is the best definition of activity of Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov – one of the brightest representatives of the first generation of the scientists who have dedicated their lives to computing and its practical implementation. Creative life of Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov was rather dramatic. Now it is difficult to guess how could his scientific initiatives influence development of the Soviet informatics if they were adopted..

There were scientists in the history of the Soviet computers development, which had serious, and even philosophical, approach to the problems they should solve. Therefore, we have our own teachers. The word “methodology” is the best definition of activity of Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov – one of the brightest representatives of the first generation of the scientists who have dedicated their lives to computing and its practical implementation. Creative life of Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov was rather dramatic. Now it is difficult to guess how could his scientific initiatives influence development of the Soviet informatics if they were adopted..

Diversified scientific and organisational activity of A.I. Kitov has the following milestones in his biography:

Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov was born on the 9thof August 1920 in town of Samara (on middle Volga). During the Russian Civil War A.I. Kitov’s father, Ivan Stepanovich, served in tsarist (“white”) army as a junior officer. In 1921 the Kitovs moved to town of Tashkent (capital of the Soviet Uzbekistan). In Tashkent Kitov – the father, worked as inspector book-keeper and auditor at some (civil) building organisation. The mother, Maria Vasilievna Kitova was taking care of their five children. Anatoly Kitov was an able well-developed schoolchild. He was a regular winner of republican and city’s school competitions (Olympiads) on mathematics and physics. Anatoly was very good at athletics and became a gymnastics champion of Tashkent among school children: liked modelling of airplanes, played chess. He was fond of tennis and swimming, doing that until his old years, and always used chances to do some physical work. 

In 1939 he graduated from the (secondary) school with the honours and entered the faculty of physics and mathematic of the Tashkent State University. However, he studied there only less three months and then was called to army, as “the international situation was difficult” (the Second World War had already began in Europe and its growing danger was very clear). 

In 1940, his impressive abilities at natural sciences were noticed and he was enlisted as student to the first course of the Leningrad P.I. Baranov Military High-school, according to personal permission of K.E. Voroshilov - the USSR Minister of Defence. He entered the faculty of anti-aircraft artillery reconnaissance devices. In the end of June 1941 Kitov and his fellow-students had to interrupt their learning, they were urgently sent to the front. Kitov came there at the South Ukraine near the town of Krivoy Rog, as the junior lieutenant of the special 286th anti-aircraft battalion. He was appointed as the commander of a searchlight platoon.

A.I. Kitov was an officer, a unit commander, however, he regularly used his free time for systematic study of physics, mathematic and other subjects of the university program, which was interrupted by the war. Veteran of the war, lieutenant-general M.M. Kolomiets (awarded honorary title “Hero of the Socialist Labour”) said once, at meeting of Kitov commemoration, “In 1944 our troops conducted fierce battles near town of Sombor, at the South Front. Anatoly Kitov demonstrated his steadfast belief in our victory by regular self-studying university course in mathematics... Every day many of our friends lost their lives, but even then he was already thinking about the future peaceful life, about necessity of restoration of the national industry and economy, badly damaged by the war“. 

In 1943 he performed his first analytic work, he proposed new method of anti aircraft shooting. In May 1945, when the war came to the end, he was in Germany. 

In August 1945 he entered the F.E. Dzerzhinsky Artillery Academy (one of the USSR best military universities then) in Moscow. He entered its new faculty of rocket armament, and started learning at the second academic year at once. He passed all exams for the first year after of entering exams. In parallel with studying at the academy he also attended lectures on mathematics given by academician A.N. Kolmogorov at the Lomonosov Moscow State University. His achievements are displayed in his academic characteristics (qualification reports). The one from August 1946, “Captain Kitov is an exceptionally able officer. Mental clarity, quick intellect, clear understanding of situation and quick decision making are his distinctive traits “. „He is able to quickly uptake even „fuzzy expressed“ ideas of his commanders and teachers in detail and realise them completely on his own“. “His intellectual abilities and memory capacity are really impressive. Sometimes he passed two serious exams on large theoretical subjects one day, without having enough time for preparations” (on the same day when the last lecture of the studied subject was given).

A. Kitov demonstrates excellent academic performance and receives only excellent notes ... He also perfectly performs duties of political work organisation ... Kitov is a disciplined person, he possesses good self-command and is a tactful one ... excellent sportsman.“ Conclusions of the qualification report:

Deserved to be transferred to the 3-th academic year“.

Deserved to be awarded Stalin scholarship“ (it was special honorable award). 

After graduation from the 3rd year, 31th of July 1947, “Captain Kitov is very able one from nature. He has high and flexible intellect, good memory and quick wit. Kitov is able to deeply understand the subjects he is studying. These are his personal traits. He possesses perfect self-control at all conditions due to his quiet and balanced nature. His modesty and relative simplicity of character perfectly complement his good officer qualities.”

Besides his excellent academic performance A.I. Kitov was successful in scientific researches, in which he was constantly engaged. He made three publications on rocket engineering subjects and received “author’s certificate” (patent) №10666 (from 19th of April 1949) for a weapon of new type – “rocket cannon”, which was presented by the USSR Ministry of Defence, among other weapons, to the State Commission headed by I.V. Stalin. He was also a chairman of the academy students’ scientific society. As a temporary member of the leading Soviet rockets designer academician S.P. Korolev’s scientific team Kitov took part (as a translator from German) in creation of the first Soviet rocket “R-1”.

In 1950 A.I. Kitov graduated from the Artillery Academy with excellent results, diploma and golden medal. His name is engraved with golden letters on the wall of the Academy’s big meeting hall, among the names of its best graduates, which were listed since 1820 – the date of its foundation.

In 1950-1952 A.I. Kitov was working at the Academy of Artillery Sciences as scientific assistant. In parallel with that he performed functions of military reception expert at one of the USSR first computer design centres – Special Design Bureau (SDB) – 245, which belonged to the USSR Ministry of Machine Engineering and Instrumentation. At present, SDB-245 is the Scientific Research Institute of Digital Electronic Computers.

In 1952 A.I. Kitov successfully defended thesis on “Programming of External Ballistics Problems for Long Range Operation Rockets”. The defending was conducted at the Scientific Research Institute №4 - the USSR main space research and design centre. It was the first dissertation in the USSR on computer programming. 

In 1952-1954 A.I. Kitov headed -the first in the country- computer department, which he himself founded at the F.E. Dzerzhinsky Artillery Academy. Then it was named “Department of Mathematical Machines”. It was then, when he received his first experience in development of electronic computers – he was taking part in testing of one of the first Soviet computers “BESM of the USSR Academy of Sciences” at the Moscow Institute of Precession Mechanics and Electronic Computers (IPM&EC). An IPM&EC veteran I.M. Lisovsky who has written the article “Memoirs about Meetings with the Pioneers of Cybernetics” said, “We all, the collaborators of the IPM&EC of the AS USSR knew about Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov - the chief of the department of computers and programming at the F.E. Dzerzhinsky Artillery Academy, and respected him”. “In the beginning of 1953 he, a thirty two years old major, was dispatched by the Ministry of Defence to the IPM&EC, where he took active part in testing and regulation works on the computer “BESM of the USSR Academy of Sciences”. 

I.M. Lisovsky emphasises the fact – composing of the user manual by Kitov for the future computer users. He did that in parallel with testing works. At that time the “future users” thought about it as of the “third-grade work”. However, later they all realised that Kitov produced important and useful document, which was also used by the Academy of Sciences president M.V. Keldysh with the aim to rebuke the critical comments of the colleagues from other institutes, that the collaborators of his computer department at the Mathematical Institute of the AS USSR, were using the “BESM of the AS USSR”, which was not provided with any technical documents and manuals for its users.

In 1953 A.I. Kitov made pioneer publication “Usage of Electronic Computers” in the scientific journal “News of the F.E. Dzerzhinscy Artillery Academy”. That was the first article on the subject in the country. 

In 1951/52 A.I. Kitov studied the book “Cybernetics” by Norbert Wiener, which he had found in library of the SDB-245. Both the library and the organisation itself were the secreted ones. The book was also classified.

Of course, there were other scientists, some - very famous ones, who had read the book, however, young officer Anatoly Kitov not only has read it but also prepared an article “Main Features of Cybernetics”. In the Soviet Union, the first official reaction on the “newly born” science of cybernetics was quite negative. Kitov was the first soviet author who has made positive analytical article on the subject. It was the beginning of the movement for ideological and scientific recognition of the cybernetics in the USSR. However, at that time, a scientific seminar - so-called “methodological seminar”- on the philosophical foundations of physics and natural sciences was already being regularly conducted by collaborators of the Scientific Research Institute – 5, of the USSR Ministry of Defence. 

In the spring of the 1953, A.I. Kitov brought to the seminar meeting his article “The Main Features of Cybernetics”, written by him in 1952, in library of the SDB-245. 

In that communist time, the young scientist Anatoly Kitov needed co-authors with well-known names (albeit formally) to publish his article «Basic Features of Cybernetics».

Famous scientist M.G. Gaase-Rappoport, also a graduate of the Artillery Academy, described it in the following way, “At one of the seminars it was decided to consider the problem of “positive significance” of the cybernetics… Three colleagues should make their reports, A.I. Kitov, I.A. Poletaev and me… A.I. Kitov brought rather big article about cybernetics and we had a chance to have a look through it. Then Kitov showed his article to professor Alexey Lyapunov, who added to it couple pages. After that Kitov and Lyapunov showed this article to academician S.L. Sobolev. Sobolev also agreed to sign it. As the result, in the fourth number of the central journal “The Problems of Philosophy”, of 1955, appeared famous article “The Main Features of Cybernetics”, signed by Sobolev, Kitov and Lyapunov. That was, actually, the beginning”. 

Academician S.L. Sobolev was the very famous mathematician who participated in the creation of the first soviet atomic bomb.

Three years passed from the time the article was written by A.I. Kitov in 1952 till its publishing. However, the result was impressive – it appeared in the central philosophical journal of the country, in “The Problems of Philosophy“. Appearance of the first positive big publication in the main ideological periodical of the Central Committee of the USSR Communist Party (the ruling one), and the subsequent broad public discussion of the its contents, eventually led to recognition and the following development of the cybernetics as a science in the USSR.

In fact, publication of the article could be considered as the beginning point of the cybernetics progress in our country. The “starting impulse” was enforced with the next article of A.I. Kitov “Technical Cybernetics” published by popular journal “Radio” (№11, 1955). A.I. Kitov made essential contribution to development of the cybernetics with his scientific works performed in the period from 1955 till 1961. 

The group of scientists-enthusiasts (mainly A.I. Kitov and A.A. Lyapunov) made presentations, lectures and conducted public discussions on the subject of cybernetics during about a year and a half before Kitov’s article “The Main Features of Cybernetics” was published. Such procedure was ordered by officials of the Ideological department of the Central Committee of the CPSU, who eventually gave permission for the publication of this article. 

Kitov’s reports on promotion of the cybernetics were very famous. Among them there were the reports made at the big conference hall of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, at the All-union society “Knowledge” (propagation of scientific achievements), at the F.E. Dzerzhinsky Artillery Academy, at the Institute of Philosophy of the AS USSR, at the Polytechnic Museum, at the V.I. Lenin Electrotechnical Institute, in the Institute-5 of the USSR Defence Ministry, at the Leningrad House of Science and Technics and others.

Kitov’s reports got enthusiastic positive reception everywhere. Physiologist P.I. Gulyaev has described the exciting atmosphere of the lecture at the Leningrad House of Scientists, on the 27th of December 1954, in his letter to A.A. Lyapunov, in the following way. “Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov has delivered a lecture in Leningrad. The lecture on cybernetics caused great interest in the city. The meeting hall was so overcrowded that many people were staying in passages between rows of chairs and behind the opened doors of the room. Many specialists from various fields were present. There were mathematicians, physicists, physiologists, engineers, biologists, doctors, psychologists and so on. Anatoly Ivanovoch Kitov has made very interesting and detailed review on the cybernetics. Then, there followed many questions from the audience. The lecturer was prized with long applause. I enjoyed his lecture too. His report has become a great deal for us. The atmosphere of mistrust and fear before the cybernetics has changed to vivid interest to it. Lectures on it are made at official organisations of Leningrad; appropriate articles begin to appear in local newspapers.

In an interview to computer magazine “Komputerra” (Moscow) Kitov remembered that during the lectures meeting halls were overcrowded and literally “were almost bursting up”. The “the spark" of mentioned Kitov’s articles ignited fire that everywhere gave a bright light on the cybernetics ideas. Kitov commented rather metaphorically, “…as if a dam broke”. The chairs of cybernetics were established in many Soviet universities soon after. Cybernetics related subjects were also taught. 

President of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1986-1991) academician G.I. Marchuk has written about the first positive article on cybernetics, “In 1955 the USSR first article on cybernetics appeared in the journal “The Problems of Philosophy”. Its authors S.L. Sobolev, A.I. Kitov and A.A. Lyapunov formulated meaning of the cybernetics deeply and in detail, although at that time the idea of the cybernetics was severely criticised in both official and scientific circles. In the article the authors analysed general scientific meaning of the cybernetics as of emerging information theory, theory of electronic calculating machines and the theory of automated control systems. That article had deсisive meaning for understanding the new field of knowledge and it became the turning point for attitude and philosophy of the people who obtained solid basis of new science. It is very difficult to underestimate scientific importance of the article.” 

Academician of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences V.S. Korolyuk commented: “I am sure that contribution of A.I. Kitov to development of cybernetics in our country became an essential support to stable progress of modern computers and their implementation in various fields including space researches.”   

According to academician Y.I. Zhuravlev: “Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov was a true pioneer of cybernetics in our country. His scientific work dropped light on the ways of the national computer science development and discovered wonderful world of information technologies to several generations for both the Soviet and foreign specialists.

Academician V.K.Levin has written about A.I. Kitov the following: “Anatoly Ivanovich was a pioneer of cybernetics. He has lit the broad way of the electronic computing machines progress and implementation”.

In 1954, Anatoly Kitov was appointed as the head of the main computer centre of the USSR Ministry of Defence (CC №1 USSR MD, military unit 01168), which he created himself. Thus, oppositely to bureaucratic tradition, according to which that position should be occupied by an army general, the place was given to a young officer - highly educated professional with impressive scientific and technical abilities and erudition. Results of that appeared very soon. Anatoly Kitov managed to form very powerful scientific team of leading scientists and experts in the field of mathematical methodology, algorithms, development and implementation of complex software systems, hardware development and operation, etc. The scientists of the CC №1 were L.A. Lyusternik, A.A. Lyapunov, L.I. Gutenmakher, N.A. Krinitsky, I.A. Poletaev, N.P. Buslenko, G.G. Belonnogov, G.A. Mironov, G.D. Frolov, O.V. Sosjura, A.M. Bukhtiyarov, P.N. Komolov, A.N. Nechaev, I.V. Potosin, I.N. Kovalenko, G.A. Meshcheryakov, V.P. Isaev, G.B. Smirnov, V.I. Bogatyrev, K.V. Tarakanov, S.A. Abramov and others. Beside the famous experienced specialists there worked large groups of young mathematicians – graduates of the Moscow State University, graduates of the Artillery Academy, of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute and many other leading Soviet technical universities. According to Kitov’s initiative work of the young specialists began with qualification upgrading in the field of computer sciences and related subjects. 

Doctor of technical sciences, professor and colonel-engineer G.A. Mironov, who has worked at the CC №1 since May of 1954, remembers, “Activity of colonel A.I. Kitov at the Computer Centre №1 (military unit 01168) might be briefly characterised as ‘creation of the computer centre and choice of the ways of its development’. A.I. Kitov has not only founded military unit 01168 (CC №1), but also inspirited its scientific development... Everybody was impressed with the fact that the commander of the unit was not only an administrator but also a professional -highly competent computer expert. … A.I. Kitov studied his collaborators very attentively. He analysed in details every problem to be solved by his centre, always together with the programmer, or programmers, who was in charge of the task. Usually such joint analysis took a long time, however, one discussion was enough for Kitov to form an opinion about his colleague. Kitov organised extended education for all his collaborators. One can say that a university, a technical institute and a college – all of them were actively functioning ‘under our roof’. It’s notable, that the same people were often both teachers and students. Some special subjects were taught for engineers and also for programmers. Those were, basic concepts of computer hardware design (lecturer – A.N. Nechaev, one of the designers of the USSR first serial computer STRELA), basic programming knowledge for digital computers (lecturer - A.I. Kitov himself), theory of automatic control (lecturer – lieutenant-colonel Javna). All collaborators attended the lectures; the lecturing hall was always completely filled with people. 

In the CC №1 Kitov organised his collaborators, among others, for manufacturing of computer “M-100”, of their own design. That time it was the quickest lamp computer in the USSR and in the world – one hundred thousand computer instructions per second. It used one of the first immediate access stores on ferrite cores. Later, such ferrite memory devices became very popular and widespread. 

Special department of mathematical support had been established for designing computer “M-100”. There were several task forces in it. The first one was engaged into theoretical and practical problems of reliability… 

Typical example of Kitov’s scientific intuition consisted in his opinion on information systems. He aimed efforts of the CC №1 scientists at their development. Creation of information retrieval systems became really “pioneer direction” not only for the USSR armed forces but for the whole Soviet IT as well… Anatoly Kitov initiated scientific work at the CC №1 on the mathematical linguistics and machine translation at the laboratory of professor G.G. Belonogov. Kitov had been scientific supervisor of Belonogov’s dissertation work

A.I. Kitov implemented the first computer (STRELA) within the system of the Ministry’s of Defence organisations. Ha headed solving with computers of all USSR problems on military subjects. His CC №1 performed calculations for the General Staff of the Ministry of Defence, for the main intelligence directorate, for main directorate of land forces, directorate of supply and support and others. Ballistic calculations for strategic rocket forces and for support of the first space flights took special place in the CC №1 work.

Famous IT specialist, colonel V.P. Isaev, who had worked at the CC №1 since May 1954) has written in his memoir: “I had practically daily communication with A.I. Kitov. It was close scientific collaboration on solving of actual concrete research problems. Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov preferred solving of programming-algorithmic problems of theoretical nature, however, he didn’t forget about their design and technological realisation. If one takes analogical example from space research field, than, in CC №1, Kitov as scientist, with his style was comparable with M.V. Keldysh (president of the AS USSR) and S.P. Korolev (Chief designer). He was somehow “in the middle, between them”, that is he was both the chief theoretician and chief designer. In the CC №1 Kitow always was main initiator, generator of ideas, the author of “setting up the problems”, and “the brain” of performed developments.

A.I. Kitov has developed foundations of computer-based automated information systems for defence purposes and conducted big work on their implementation in military field. 

In the period from 1953 till 1963 Anatoly Kitov was publishing series of the first –in the USSR- scientific works on military informatics in journals “Military Thought /Voennaja mysl’”, “Radioelektronika”, “Izvestija artillerijskoj akademii im. F.E. Dzerzhinskogo/News of the Artillery Academy”, in the USSR Ministry of Defence periodical collections of scientific works, in some classified sources, etc. 

Veteranof the CC №1colonel V.N. Vanin, who was the chief of algorithms and programs development department, told about A.I. Kitov, “Anatoly Kitov was very clever man, a scientist “filled up to the top with knowledge”. I’ve never met a person more honest and modest then he in the whole of my life.

A.I. Kitov was the founder and chief-editor of periodical collection of scientific applied articles on various aspects of computers implementation, predominantly in military sphere. At the Ministry of Defence he was the main organiser of scientific conferences and seminars on the problems of computer-based information and computing complexes and systems creation.

At the CC №1 A.I. Kitov headed and participated in design and manufacturing of two new computers - “M-100” and “Udar” (blow). Both were successfully put into operation. Computer “M-100” was processing data, which were received form surveillance radiolocation stations. “Udar” was used at preparing ballistic missiles for launching. 

Principle of parallel processing of the statements, with computer arithmetic unit, proposed by Kitov and his collaborators M.V. Melnikov, A.I. Shuvalov and O.V. Seleznev, is currently wide used by computer processors and is known as “principle of conveyor performance of instructions”. The authors received “the Authors Certificate” №19628, from 27.06.1958 (USSR analogue of inventor’s patent) for invention of a new method of computer arithmetic unit functioning. It was named “Method of quadruplicate combination of instructions’ cycles”. It was the method, which Kitov implemented in design of computer “M-100”, what made it a world champion among electron tube computers (of the 1stgeneration). Beside that, its high performance was achieved due to the first implemented method of two-level RAM addressing (cache memory) – what reminds the “Harvard’s architecture”. There were some other novelties in it too, however, CC №1 was military organisation and they remained classified. Besides the creation of the “M-100” computer itself, huge complex of software was developed for processing surveillance radars’ data flows and solving problems of missiles aiming, for the anti-aircraft and -missile defence of the country. Description of the architecture of “M-100” became a part of A.I. Kitov’s thesis for doctor’s degree. The dissertation was titled “Implementation of Computers for solving the Problems of Antiaircraft and Antimissile Defence.” He brilliantly defended it in 1963, at the “closed” (for authorised persons only) meeting of the Scientific Council of the Institute of Management Problems, AS USSR. Besides the “M-100”, in his dissertation research Kitov has also analysed principles of designing specialised computers. He defined specific features of their structure, algorithmic programming language for solving complex of anti-aerial defence problems with the use of computers, and performed computer modelling of dynamical systems connected with air defence systems demands.

For solving air defence problems Kitov used the following mathematical methods: filtration and elimination of hazards, mathematical modelling, forecasting of aerial targets trajectories, solution methods for problem of defining the point of flying target interception with a missile.

Veteran of CC №1, colonel G.B. Smirnov remembered about it in his article “Creator of the Quickest Computer of his Time”: “… I was charged with designing of arithmetic and logic unit of specialised computer “M-100”.  That time, this creation of A.I. Kitov’s scientific talents and his practical supervision surpassed many other comparable computers, with its system’s architecture and hard and software solutions… I remember how A.I. Kitov, and other members of his team, received the “Author’s certificate” (patent) on the 27thof June 1958, for the “Principle of Operations Concurrency in Computer” (approximate title, ed.). That principle of parallel and simultaneous operations performing with various units of computer, has become one of the basic directions in subsequent development of computers and increasing of their performance.”

In the beginning of1956 A.I.Kitov published monograph “Electronic Digital Computers” at the all-union publishing house “Sovetskoe Radio” (Soviet Radio). That was the first book on programming, computers and their applications in the USSR. It became the basic textbook for programmers not only in the USSR, but also in China and number of European countries. The book already set forth the thesis about possibility of computers usage not only for purely mathematical calculations, but also in many other fields of human activity, first of all in economy. 

The professor of the University of Michigan John Carr emphasized importance of A.I. Kitov’s publication in his book “Lectures on Programming” (USA, 1958). In 1963 the translation of this book was published in the USSR. He remarked: “The most complete demonstration of the problems of computer programming, containing detailed examples and analysis of both manual and automatic programming is given at the book “Electronic Digital Computers” by A.I. Kitov. Some chapters of this book have been translated in English and are obtainable through ‘Association for Computing Machinery’.

This book “Electronic Digital Computers” has been also published in Poland, China, Czechoslovakia, and in several other countries. Publishing of Kitov’s book became a milestone in the history of Soviet science. The president of the AS USSR G.I. Marchuk (1986-1991) about this Kitov's book “Electronic Digital Computers” has written the following: “This book has become a systematic workbook for a broad circle of those, who was just beginning their study of computers and their applications. In fact, it made an overturn in attitude of many researchers. Many scientists and their collaborators obtained excellent information on the structure of computers and exceptional possibilities of their application.

Academician V.M. Glushkov remarked: “A.I. Kitov – recognised pioneer of cybernetics, who formed basis of the national school of programming and application of computers for solving both military and economic problems. I myself, same as tens of thousands other specialists, received my first computer knowledge from his book “Electronic Digital Computers” – the first Soviet book on computers and programming.

Several weeks later, in the same 1956, publishing department of the  F.E. Dzerzhinsky Artillery Academy released book by A.I. Kitov, N.A. Krinitsky and P.N. Komolov, “Elements of Programming”, under Kitov’s edition.

Inspired with possibilities provided by cybernetics, and by social response to his activity for its propagation, as well as with its successful implementation in the fields of defence and space-researches, Kitov was “filled with ideas” on its usage for national benefits. Main state management system of the Soviet Union was hierarchical one based on centralised planning, however, it used only old-fashioned technologies of information processing and transmitting.

A.I. Kitov was convinced that cybernetics - the science of control, was the best match for perspective planning and control of the socialist economy, because of its centralised hierarchical structure. For the beginning he published his ideas on creation of the single national network of computing centres (NNCC) in a brochure “Electronic Computing Machines”, issued by the All-union Society “Znanie” (knowledge) in a big number of copies, in 1958. 

On the 7th of January 1959 Kitov sent a letter to the Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (CC of CPSU) and the Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers (USSR CM) N.S. Khrushchev. In this letter he described his proposal of basic changing the management methods and means of the USSR economy, by means of “… transition from manual and personal forms of management to automated management systems, based on electronic computers usage.” His brochure “Electronic Computing Machines” (1958) was attached to the letter as supplement. This Kitov's letter made some positive effect, it was accepted with attention, and an interdepartmental commission has been established, which worked out a directive of the CC of CPSU and of the USSR CM “On acceleration of computers production and implementation in the national economy”.

Although the letter has made significant contribution to beginning large-scale production of electronic computers in the USSR, no attention was paid to its main idea – re-organisation of the national economy management on basis of NNCC. In the autumn 1959, A.I. Kitov sent his second letter to N.S. Khrushchev. In the first part of the letter the author sharply criticised very low tempo of mass implementation of computers. Consequences of this criticism were more than negative for the young enthusiastic officer, “a scientist in military uniform”, who sincerely cared about the future of his country. Main body of the letter consisted of his research project “On Measures on Overcoming the Lagging in Creation and Production of Electronic Computers and their Implementation in National Economy and Armed Forces”, which took two hundred pages. It has been developed by Kitov himself, and became famous as the project “Red Book”. 

Presentation of Kitov’s project “Red Book” to the high state administration made his name very famous and historical one. In fact, he has been the first one both in the country and in the world, who emphasised necessity of creation national automated system for complex management of the country’s economy on basis of usage of networked computers and mathematic methods in economy. He saw technical aspect of this automated system as global network with double objectives – civil and military, which should cover territory of the whole country and consist of thousands of computer centres operated by specially educated military personnel. As the volume of computer production was still lover than necessary, concentration of available computers in powerful computing centres, where their professional and reliable operation and maintenance would be performed by military personnel, could enable sufficient qualitative progress in their usage. 

A.I. Kitov was working upon the detailed project “Red Book” during several months. Nevertheless, he began his letter to N.S. Khrushchev with negative foreword, critical remarks of which were aimed at the state of affairs with computer implementation at the country and at the USSR Ministry of Defence, what defined negative reaction to his initiatives from corresponding high-rank officials.

Main problem consisted in the following, some members of the USSR Communist Party Central Committee (CC CPSU) and some governmental officials – also at the Ministry of Defence, who might have read Kitov’s letter, presumably could suspect a danger, as realisation of the project – complex automation of management in the USSR, would lower their personal administrative power and influence. That would be unacceptable for them. Anyway, the second Kitov’s letter and materials of the project itself were re-directed from the CC CPSU office to the Ministry of Defence, which was criticised in the foreword of the letter for insufficient implementation of  computers. A commission was formed for studying this Kitov's project, under chairmanship of the USSR marshal (Brit. field marshal) K.K. Rokossovsky. As the result, A.I. Kitov, for his revolutionary project, was expelled from the Communist Party and suspended from scientific heading of the CC №1 of the Ministry of Defence. That was the consequence of his reasonable attempt to promote the “double-purpose technology”, as we call it now. Academician V.M. Glushkov said about that Kitov’s activity, “His two letters to the head of the state and his scientific publications, the first time in the USSR (and in the world -Ed.), declared ideas on necessity of establishing unified national automated system for management in economy and in armed forces, on basis of unified network of computing centres.”

In 1959, his fundamental work – the book on 600 pages - “Electronic Digital Machines and Programming”, was published. A.I. Kitov has written it together with his friend and colleague N.A. Krinitsky. It has undoubtedly become the most popular course-book on computers at the Soviet universities and engineering institutes of that time. Generations of specialists both of our country and also of GDR, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and some other countries studied with this source the programming and electronic computers. 

This book was the first publication in the field of computer sciences officially accepted by the USSR Ministry of Higher Education as course-book for universities. There were two editions of it –in 1959 and in 1961- with total number of copies 140 000. Academician V.K. Levin remembered about Kitov’s books: “Publication of his book “Electronic Digital Computers”, in 1956, was very important event, because, generally speaking, it was the first Soviet book on computers. Appearance of his next book “Electronic Digital Computers and Programming”, written in collaboration with N.A. Krinitsky - also a distinguished scientist, has caused even bigger resonance. This, the second book was 3 or 4 times bigger than the previous one (2 times; ed.). Actually, it became the only available encyclopaedia and course-book on computers and programming, at that time. Thank to such fundamental monograph, thousands of the Soviet specialists obtained knowledge on electronic computers. Later they formed the first generations of our programmers and computer experts. Both mentioned books contained concrete materials and also generalisations, therefore, they were interesting and useful both for the beginners and for experienced specialists.” 

Academician G.I. Marchuk expressed his opinion on the course-book “Electronic Digital Computers and Programming” in the following way: “At that time it was practically an encyclopaedia of computer science. Many generations of students at the universities and institutes received fundamental education with help of that book, and became the first class scientists in many fields of knowledge.” 

Professor, Dr. of technical sciences V.N. Vagin: “First I made acquaintance not with A.I. Kitov himself, but with his fundamental book “Electronic Digital Computers and Programming”, which he has written in collaboration with N.A. Krinitsky, and published in 1959. It was not easy to find the book, bookshops always sold it very quickly, and at libraries one had to wait many days for his turn to receive it, because somebody else was always reading it.”

Professor, Dr. of technical sciences A.K. Poljakov, “The course-book on computers and programming by A.I. Kitov and N.A. Krinitsky was probably one of the world’s best, that time”.

In July 1960 A.I. Kitov was expelled from the Communist Party and discharged of his duties as scientific chief of the CC №1. Actually, it was prestigious position usually given to persons with rank of a general. Kitov has been appointed on it for his advanced pioneer researches and successful organisation work therefore, his dismissal was accepted by scientific society as a sort of “revenge” from some high-rank state communist administrators for his activity connected with the “Red Book” project. According to a directive of the Main Political Quarters of the Ministry of Defence it was prohibited, further on, to appoint him on command positions. It was, undoubtedly, a severe blow on the military career of 40-years-old highly intellectual colonel that had been developing so triumphantly since twenty years. However, despite the rejection by the administrative structure, luckily, neither, Kitov’s talents were destroyed nor he was deprived from scientific future. Soon after, colonel Kitov was appointed at the Scientific Research Institute №5 (SRI-5) of the USSR Ministry of Defence. The institute was subsequently subjected to the State Committee on Radio and Electronics at the USSR Council of Ministers and became the Moscow SRI of Instrumental Automatic. At this new place Kitov founded new perspective direction for scientific researches – complex development of the system software (operating systems) for automated management systems of the air defence military forces. Those were the first projects of such kind not only in the USSR but also in the world. The whole work was strictly classified. However, even while working at the SRI-5 A.I. Kitov didn’t abandon his plans on the Unified State System for Automated Management in National Economy. In 1961, there appeared famous collection of works “Cybernetics to Serve to Communism”. Article by A.I. Kitov “Cybernetics and Management of the National Economy” became one of the most significant contributions to this collection. That was “the spring of the Soviet cybernetics”, its first steps not to forget. This progress was not missed by the scientific world’s attention. Thus, in 1963, American scientific magazine “Operations Research” published detailed positive review on this Kitov’s article.

A.I. Kitov was the USSR pioneer in the field of automated management systems (AMS). Veteran CC №1 G.A. Mironov mentioned that, “In the 1960-s prominent Soviet scientists “were forcing the way” for the automated systems of both technological control and organisational management. A.I. Kitov was undoubtedly the pioneer of that movement”. 

On having left the Ministry of Defence Kitov continued his scientific researches at the USSR Ministry of Radio Industry (MRI), working as the chief of its Main Computer Centre and also as the vice-director on scientific work of the Institute of Instrumental Automation (NIIAA). Here he headed creation of the AMS MRI as its Chief Designer. Created system was certified by the state commission as the model for all nine USSR ministries, which were engaged in weapons industry. At that period A.I. Kitov was heading the Council of Chief Designers developing AMSes for all these nine Ministries. Kitov developed basic algorithms of these AMSes functioning, defined standard information processes, created methodical instructions for modelling and produced necessary software. Academician V.M. Glushkov was the scientific head of this project. A.I. Kitov ahd he were connected with many years of friendship, close scientific cooperation and mutual respect. 

At his USSR first monograph on programming, computers and their various applications, “Electronic Digital Computers” (1956) A.I. Kitov focused on the problems of computers implementation in economy, automation of industrial production processes and solving of various other intellectual problems. While working at the Ministry of Radio Industry he steadily promoted and realised his ideas. In 2009, colonel V.P. Isaev - veteran of the AMS development and implementation – published an article in the journal “Otkrytye Sistemy” (open systems) №5, in which he emphasises importance of Kitov’s book “Electronic Digital Computers” (1956). V.P. Isaev wrote: “The book is focused, in significant degree, on the problems of computer usage in economy, automation of production processes and on solution of other intellectual problems. I think that this theoretical scientific monograph was the forerunner of the Soviet AMSes Scientific area. The time of that was – 1956…Further on, in his following work “Electronic Computers”, issued by publishing house “Znanie” (knowledge) in 1958, A.I. Kitov described in details perspectives of complex automation of information processing and of administrative management, including management in industry and solving economical problems. Those times this concept (paradigm) was a sort of ‘heresy’, and its public presentation was ‘civil courage display’, as the thesis ‘Mathematics in economy is the means of capitalism apology’ was still dominating in official scientific spheres. Therefore, considering the abovementioned, my own knowledge and also more than 40 years long experience of participation in development IT and AMS, I can make the following logical conclusion, ‘Anatoly Ivanovich Ktov is surely the author of the notion AMS and the ideologist of their creation in the USSR’. Speaking metaphorically, ‘If the WORD was in the beginning’ then, this word has been said by A.I. Kitov in 1958.

After leaving military service in the middle of the 1960s A.I. Kitov continued publishing of fundamental scientific works on the national economy computer based management and mathematical methods in economy.    

Professor K.I. Kurbakov remembers the following: “In the 1960-s an All-Union scientific conference on the problems of cybernetics, informatics and computers took place in Tashkent. That was very representative event. Among the participants there were: academician A.I. Berg, corresponding member of the AS USSR N.P. Buslenko, professors A.I. Kitov, N.A. Krinitsky, R.G. Kotov and many other famous scientists… The issue of efficient computers usage in management became the mainstream of the agenda… Notably, that all those present at this conference expressed their respect to A.I. Kitov as to the main expert on the subject.” 

At those years Kitov was developing new technology of computer-assisted data processing “Associative Programming”, and headed creation of new algorithmic language “ALGEM” for computers “Minsk-22” and “Minsk-32”, produced in big series. Results of this work were presented in his monograph “Programming of Information-Logical Problems” (1967). In 1971 appeared German translation of his monograph ‘Programming of Information-Logical Problems’. In 1970 the book, ‘System of programming automation ALGEM’, written by a team of his post-graduates, was published under Kitov’s edition. In 1971 one more Kitov’s monograph was published. That was ‘Programming of Economical and Management Problems’, in which Kitov had generalised his experience of the work as the Chief Designer of the Automated Management System for the Ministry of Radio-Industry. 

From 1966 till 1974 A.I. Kitov headed, founded by him, all-union scientific collection of articles ‘Digital Computing Machinery and Programming’. 

During more than 30 years he was insistently trying to persuade the administrators that the epoch of automated management would inevitably come. Therefore the AMSes should be created immediately, and in correctly organised way, before the whole country might fell apart. A.I. Kitov initiated one more direction of scientific works, ‘Development and Implementation of Information-Retrieval Systems’ (IRS). 

According to professor G.A. Mironov: “At some moment A.I. Kitov realised that development of new computers was a wrong way for the CC №1, and competition with big industry was senseless. Besides, all rational engineering solutions in hardware development made at the CC №1 had been immediately and successfully implemented by the state industry on large scale.” However, one had to clearly realise, what direction should be taken for the further development. Here Kitov’s merit consisted in aiming scientific efforts of the CC №1 on the problems of informatics. He actively started realisation of this plan despite the resistance of colleagues willing to continue development of their own computers. As the result, soon after their computer centre was extended with two new big scientific sectors – calculating systems and information systems. Direction of information-retrieval systems became the pioneer one not only at the USSR armed forces, but also for the whole country in general. The results of work, their contribution to science and practical implementation, essentially depended on A.I. Kitov who set the problems. Sector of Krinitsky, which included laboratories of G.G. Belonogov and my one, were lucky to be engaged in information systems development for the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff. Belonogov focused his work on documental systems and we were charged with development of factographic systems. A.I. Kitov was the scientific supervisor of Belonogov’s dissertation work, its subject was related to mathematical linguistics”. 

The variety of projects at Belonogov’s laboratory is a good illustration for broad spectre of scientific researches conducted by A.I. Kitov at his Computer Centre №1. For clear understanding of the scale and depth of the projects performed by the computer centre, it might be enough to look through the contents of the collections of scientific works, written and published by its collaborators. According to the opinion of the scientists of the AS USSR, industrial sphere and universities, publication in those scientific periodicals was a matter of prestige for them. 

Veteran of IT K.I. Kurbakov remembers about Kitov’s work at the USSR Ministry of Radio-Industry, on Information Retrieval Systems: “Main discussion was launched when Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov proposed to concentrate basic efforts not on direct increasing of performance, but first on development of methods, algorithms and programs which permitted to essentially extend processing, storage and retrieval semantic information”. 

Already in the end of the 1950s A.I. Kitov was a convinced promoter of unification and standardisation of the produced computers and periphery equipment. He actively struggled as well for centralised control at creation and implementation of the AMS, computers and software, on the scale of the whole country. A.I. Kitov has clearly described all these ideas of his in two letters addressed to N.S. Khrushchev – the head of the state (USSR). He also presented them in a number of publications and at working meetings at the USSR State Committee on Science and Technics (SCST) and at the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 

For an example, in his article ‘Computers – Assistants in each Thing’, published by the daily ‘Izvestuya’ (one of the central Soviet newspapers; ed.) Kitov has written, “Computing machines which should be produced in big series, must be carefully selected on purpose of eventual creation the ‘unified series of computers’, which would satisfy the needs of various customers, in the best possible way. Mass production of old-fashioned, or not properly designed, computer models must not take place. Besides of that, well-running production of computers of older types must not be interrupted before the development and all testing procedures of new, more advanced ones are fully completed. Special attention should be paid to unification and mass-production of standardised units, of which computers are assembled. This subject is being discussed already several years. Nevertheless, there is still no any realprogress. Programming of the problems solution is one of the biggest difficulties at the operation of a computer. That is the reason, why availability of common machine “language” is very important factor under conditions of computers mass production and usage. Common language would create possibility of comparatively easy usage of the programs written for one computing machines for solving the same problems on other computers. Despite some attempts, that problem hasn’t been fully solved, even for such computers as “Strela”. And further on, “Introduction of programming on mass scale needs creation of “libraries of standard programs” for solving problems of the same types, and the computers which are to be sold to customers must be provided with these libraries”.

Professor K.I. Kurbakov remembers: “By the beginning of the 1960-s different design bureaus and institutes in the USSR developed big number of computers. However, they all were incompatible. There were 16, or even 18, types of them, I suppose. Each one taken separately was good, in its own way. Nevertheless, such “variety” caused great inconveniences. Quite naturally, the problem of standardisation, or rather of the absence of any standard, was set up for expert consideration. That was a painful problem. And, who, do you think, presented that problem at one of the working meetings at the SCST USSR? Right. It was Anatoly Kitov, who reported on urgent need of introducing some common state standards for hard and software of computation means. A.I. Kitov always set forth some pioneer ideas and was always criticised by “bureaucratic majority”, which was traditionally incompetent in the -contemporary to it- tendencies of scientific and technical progress”.

Already in his letter to N.S. Khrushchev, from 07.01.1959, Kitov insisted that introduction of automated systems in the country should be conducted under supervision of the state administrator of high level – such as the member of the Political-Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. The whole work in the field of computation means and automated management systems should be subjected to a single body of the Soviet Union state level –special ministry- which would be granted the monopoly to coordinate, control and implement all developments and achievements of that branch. “Only such organisation will grant successful progress, rational, without time-delays or senseless chaotic actions”.

In his, already mentioned, article ‘Computers – Assistants in each Thing’ from the 12th of July 1960, A.I. Kitov declares, that: “Taking under consideration exceptional importance of the computer development for the national economy and for the state defence, and also considering the fact that production of these computation means is steadily increasing, the need in centralised control over the work of computation centres of all kinds and categories and in control and coordination of usage of single computers, belonging to various organisations, is getting clear. These measures will enable the most rational usage of computers in interests of the whole country”.

All that, Kitov wanted to perform on the whole national scale, and wrote about it in many of his articles. Unfortunately, all those ideas and proposals hadn’t been heard, or may be the bureaucratic machine was slow. Anyway, by the end of the 1967 the Soviet Government finally made decision to start development and production of unified series of compatible computers ES (in scientific and manufacturing cooperation with East-European socialist countries; ed.). However, the famous IBM/360 computers had been chosen as prototype for new series of ES machines, which were not the latest model even then. 

In 1976, the former president of the AS USSR – Mstislav Keldysh wrote: “Things get on not well by us with peripheral devices for computers, and may be it is even worse with their software … It seems to me that we must study the problem and then prepare and set up the question about changing the order of computers production. There must be one organisation – a concern or a ministry – which would perform complex development of modern electronic computers, because the further lagging behind others in this field is unacceptable. Of course, the USSR Academy of Sciences must actively take part in this process”. With this statement M.V. Keldysh practically ‘word-in-word’ repeated A.I. Kitov’s thesis, formulated in his letter to the head of the state - N.S. Khrushchev, in 1959. 

In the very beginning of the 1970-s Kitov concentrated his efforts on implementation of information systems and AMS into the field of healthcare and medicine. At those years he was the chief designer of AMS ‘Healthcare’. The information model of this branch has been developed under his guidance, as well as the model structure of the AMS ‘Healthcare’, unified software packages for forming and logical control of information arrays and for producing data report forms. The architectural principles of medical documental and factographical information-retrieval systems, using the formalised natural language, methods of documents automated indexation and requests for their retrieval also have been developed. 

Importantmonograph written by Kitov at that time was named ‘Automation of Information Processing and Management in Healthcare Field’ (1976). In 1977 publishing house ‘Medicine’ printed his next book ‘Introduction into Medical Cybernetics’ and, in 1983, his monograph ‘Medical Cybernetics’. It worth mentioning that real contents of his researches, in the field of medical information systems, was notably nearer to the modern scientific-research mainstream of our time. 

Thus, for example, during clinical treatment of ill and wounded members of the emergency response personnel from the Chernobyl disaster site, which was conducted at Moscow hospital №6, A.I. Kitov used all his influence and equipped the hospital with mini-computer PDP-11/70. That one was the first computer PDP-11 imported in the USSR, and was one of the quickest in the mid-1970-s. The hospital №6 has become famous for especially efficient medical help to the Chernobyl workers. Programming system MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Multiprogramming System) was chosen for its operation. Later it was standardised in ISO (ISO11756:1991), but at that time it was popular in our country as DIMAS system for minicomputers SM-4 (similar to PDP). It was forerunner of contemporary M-technologies for medical applications, supported by post-relational Data Base Management System (DBMS) Cache of ‘Inter-Systems’.   

During many years A.I. Kitov was the USSR representative at the international organisations on medical informatics TC-4 IFIP, MedINFO and IMIA. He was a member of the programming and organisational committees of several international conferences, organised by IFIP и MedINFO.

A.I. Kitov is one of the leading scientists in the field of information-retrieval systems, algorithmic languages, methods of associative programming. Results of his researches have been published in monographs, “Programming of Information-Logical Problems” (Moscow, ‘Sovetskoe Radio’, 1967) and “Programming of Economic and Management Problems” (Moscow, ‘Sovetskoe Radio’, 1967). 

A.I..Kitov introduced the notion “Associative Programming”, defining it as the following: “Under ‘Associative Programming’ we understand complex of the ways of solution information-logical problems, based on programming realisation of associative links between the data stored in computer memory. In foreign countries these subjects are known under several names: data list processing, processing of nodes, chained addressing, method of control words, etc.” In his projects A.I.Kitov used positive features of programming languages of LISP class. Their elementary operations support processing of two neighbouring members of chained list. In associative programming complex generalised list structures (nest and node structures) have been analysed alongside with chained and sequential lists. Herewith, processing of lists was considered in combination with other means of ALGOL and COBOL languages. 

Creation of algorithmic language ALGEM, intended for programming of information-logical problems, and oriented on economic information processing, takes important place among other Kitov’s achievements. Programming language ALGEM belongs to the class of procedure-oriented languages. It was formed by means of extending the language ALGOL-60 by description of processing procedure of large data arrays, with fixed contents and fixed data recording structure, consequently placed in computer memory. It was also extended with means of listed data processing under condition that amount of data records in listed arrays and their place in memory is not fixed beforehand. In the 1960-1970-s algorithmic language ALGEM was widely used in various administrative organisations and industrial enterprises of the country.

In the1970-s while working as the chief-designer of the AMS ‘Healthcare’, A.I. Kitov developed algorithmic programming language NORMIN, which was widely used in the USSR for programming medical problems. That was the first, in the USSR, query language for the information retrieval on formalised natural language. 

Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov – author of 12 monographs and course-books. His books have been translated into English, Japan, German, Chinese, Polish, Czech, Romanian, Hungarian, Bulgarian and some other foreign languages. He has created scientific school, 40 dissertations have been defended under his scientific supervision. A.I. Kitov was a member of the academic journal’s ‘Programming’ editorial board from the very beginning of its publication.

A.I. Kitov completed his scientific career as the head of the chair of computing machinery and programming of the Moscow G.V. Plekhanov Institute of National Economy (currently – G.V. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics), having worked there from 1980 till 1997. As it was already mentioned, A.I. Kitov was also famous for his rare trait – scientific foresight. It was proved also in the Plekhanov University, where Kitov fundamentally reformed computer equipment of his chair, having oriented its work on perspective personal computers in future

Professor P.A. Muzychkin remembered: “A.I. Kitov founded laboratory of computing mini machines and decisively changed educational process’ orientation, at many faculties, turning from mainframes ES to mini machines ‘Iskra-226’. Strategic correctness of that decision proved itself very soon after. Thanks to his scientific vision, after 5-7 years, when the time of personal computers came, the institute was already familiar with them“

During his work at the Plekhanov UniversityA.I.Kitov was continuing scientific researches in the field of machine text processing on natural language, to make possible understanding the sense of the pronounced statements. He continued scientific supervision of his postgraduates, also in their work on further development of his system NORMIN. 

Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov died in Moscow, on the 14thOctober 2005. As a conclusion, one should mention impressive contribution of A.I. Kitov intonational and world’s informatics. He is rightfully named “One of Pioneers of Science – cybernetics and IT”.

Sources

  1. Kitov Anatoliy Ivanovich // Russian Vertual Computer Museum:
    https://www.computer-museum.ru/english/galglory_en/kitov0.php

  2. Dolgov V.A., Shilov V.V. ‘Ice breaker. Pages of Biography of Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov’ /’Informatsionnye Technologii’. 2009. №3. Supplement. 32 p.:
    http://novtex.ru/IT/it2009/number03_pril.htm.

  3. Dolgov V.A. ‘Kitov Anatoly Ivanovich – Pioneer of Cybernetics, Informatics and Automated Management Systems. Scientific Biographical Essay.’/ General edition by K.I. Kurbakov. M.: KOS-INF, 2009. 342 p.; Second edition. M.: KOS-INF, 2010. 337 p.: 
    https://www.computer-museum.ru/books/dolgov_kitov_2010.pdf

  4. Tuchkov V.Y. ‘Pioneering Explorer of Digital Continent’. M.: FSBEI of Higher Education “G.V. Plekhanov REU”, 2014. 424 p.: https://www.computer-museum.ru/books/pervoprohodec.pdf

  5. Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov / composing editors V.V. Shilov, V.A. Kitov. M., MAKS-Press M.V. Lomonosov MSU. 2020. 687 p.:  https://www.computer-museum.ru/books/Shilov_Kitov_2020.pdf

  6. V.A. Kitov, P.A. Muzychkin, A.A. Nedelkin. From Cybernetics and AMS to Digital Economy. On the occasion of the centenary of A.I. Kitov birth. M., MAKS-Press M.V. Lomonosov MSU. 2020. 120 p.: https://www.computer-museum.ru/books/Kitov_from_cybernetics_to_digital_economics.pdf

  7. Documentary film ‘Internet of Colonel Kitov’. Russian State Television TV channel ‘Culture’: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VabmptbPuPw

  8. H.I. Sayfetdinov "Military theorists and scientists of Russia. To the 100th anniversary of the birth of a prominent scientist, founder of military cybernetics in the USSR A.I. Kitov". M., Voennaya mysl (#8), 2020.: https://www.computer-museum.ru/books/Voennaya_mysl_2020.pdf




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