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Electronic Digital Computer URAL-3 (Урал-3)

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  1. Chief designer – B.I. Rameev (Rameev Bashir Iskanderovich).
    Leading assistant designers: A.N. Nevsky, V.I. Mukhin, A.G. Kalmykov, V.I. Smirnov, G.S. Gorshkov, L.N. Bogoslovsky, M.N. Knyasev, O.F. Lobov, etc.
  1. Basic organisation in charge of the computer project and design: Penza Scientific-Research Institute of Electronic Computing Machines.
  2. Producing plant: Penza Plant of Computing Analytic Machines (under the USSR Ministry of Instrumentation and Automation Means \MIAM\).
  3. Completion of the design (year): 1961.
  4. Beginning of the serial production (year): 1964.
  5. Finishing the serial production (year): 1964.
  6. Application field: computations for expanded field of mathematic problems and industrial planning tasks at computation centres of scientific research institutes and industrial enterprises.
  7. Number of produced computers: 22 pieces.

(computer structure, architecture and peripheral devices)

Design of URAL-3 had been formed as further development of URAL-2. Computer URAL-2 was modified in two directions:

  1. More additional devices (including input-output devices) were incorporated into its structure. Perforated tape devices were replaced with perforated card ones. Numeric printer was replaced with alphanumeric one with lines of 128 places.
  2. Increased capacity and reliability of external memory units. New magnetic tape memory devices greatly increased volume of stored information. Duplication of recording and storing of control sums on tape also increased information storage reliability. Increased density of recording enabled 100% extension of the stored information volume on magnetic drum. Its performance also increased.

Number of instructions was extended to 51, by incorporating URAL-2 instructions. Up to 8 magnetic drums and 12 cabinets with magnetic tape devices could be additionally connected to the computer.


Electron valve circuitry with diode gates. In general it was identical with URAL-1 and URAL-2.


URAL-3 design completely repeats that of URAL-2. Electron valve cells were mounted in upper parts of the cabinets in the computer’s main section. Their lower parts were filled with power supply blocks. However, design of the punched card devices, magnetic tape storages and alphanumeric printers was new.

Computer manufacturing technologies

Traditional technologies of mechanical parts processing, processing of synthetic materials and assembly. Principle novelties were introduced into manufacturing technology of the ferrite core storage and peripheral devices.


Test programs, control tasks.

Basic technical and operational data

URAL-3 is compatible with URAL-2 on software level. Required premises 250 sq m, power consumption 60 kWA.

Specific features

Increased number of external devices essentially expanded possibilities of economic and industrial planning information processing.

In reality URAL-3 could be characterised as an intermediate variant of external devices set between URAL-2 and URAL-4.


Translated by A. Nitussov

Started by Eduard Proydakov in 1997
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